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新学术导航       首页 > 期刊文献 > 基础科学 > 气象学 > 正文

“气象学”期刊文章统计

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基于野外观测的风沙流跃移和蠕移运动规律研究
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年5期     作者:康永德,何清,杨兴华,杨帆,艾力·买买提明,霍文     编辑:新学术编辑部

利用H11-sensit风蚀传感器、风速仪、微梯度集沙仪,于2014.72014.8在塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地塔中地区进行了风沙流跃移和蠕移运动连续观测试验,分析了该区域典型天气和不同风速下跃移、蠕移运动的规律。结果表明:(1)85mm高度范围内,随风速的增加,跃移量/蠕移量之比呈负幂数函数下降,最终趋于稳定,当风速在8.5m·s-1左右时,跃移量/蠕移量之比约为810;(2)风速达到6.9m·s-1时,总跃移量最大值为1952.01g;风速达到7.6m·s-1时,总蠕移量最大值为211.79g。(3)总跃移量和总蠕移量的比值随风速的增加呈指数递减,典型天气过程中不同风速下的总跃移量和总蠕移量比值约为824。 阅读全文>>

基于Mann-Kendall法和小波分析中小尺度多年气候变化特征研究——以甘肃省白银市近50年气候变化为例
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年5期     作者:杨义,舒和平,马金珠,阳志方     编辑:新学术编辑部

基于甘肃省白银市近50年来气温、降水资料,运用Mann-Kendall法和小波分析进行研究。研究结果表明:白银市气温总体呈升高趋势,降水量呈现波动变化。白银市气温1987年后增长迅速,作物生长期内平均气温的变化和年均气温变化基本一致,但其对年平均气温增加贡献不大。白银市降水量进入20世纪90年代略有增加趋势,但增加趋势并不明显,作物生长期内降水量与年降水量变化极为相似,这与白银市降水量偏少且相对集中有关。白银市气温变化存在2~5年,9~11年和约20年的周期变化;降水变化存在2~6年,9~10年和20年左右的周期变化;其中气温和降水变化周期中均以20年左右的年代际变化为主。 阅读全文>>

赤峰市气候季节划分方法及应用
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年4期     作者:程玉琴,尤莉,朱宇,马霜霜     编辑:新学术编辑部

利用赤峰市14个国家级地面气象观测站1961-2014年逐日气温资料和赤峰农业气象观测站的植物发芽时间、候鸟初鸣等物候观测资料,结合赤峰市的气候特点,阐述了现行的我国气象行业标准《气候季节划分》温度指标在赤峰市的不适应性;建立了适合赤峰市的气候季节划分温度指标;通过概率密度函数分布趋势,确定了气候季节早晚和持续时间长短的等级指标。据此,分析该地气候季节的时空分布特征,尤其是气候变暖对气候季节的影响。 阅读全文>>

珠江流域旱涝变化及其与大气环流关系研究
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年4期     作者:罗岚心,姜彤,孙赫敏,景丞,苏布达     编辑:新学术编辑部

基于珠江流域57个气象站1960-2014年逐日降水量资料,选用标准降水指数(SPI)为旱涝指标,讨论旱涝时空变化特征,研究与极端旱涝相关的大气环流成因。结果表明:(1)珠江流域旱涝严重程度主要受降水量影响,SPI能有效反映流域的旱涝特征;(2)自1980s起,流域有干旱趋势,西北部干旱化趋势显著;(3)流域春旱减缓,秋旱加重,夏季洪涝频发;(4)极端的旱涝变化与大气环流关系密切,西太平洋副热带高压与东亚大槽是两个主要影响珠江流域旱涝变化的环流系统。 阅读全文>>

近45年来青海三江源区干湿变化的趋势分析
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年4期     作者:赵志平,关潇,李果,翟俊,汉瑞英,李俊生,吴晓莆     编辑:新学术编辑部

文中利用青海三江源区气象台站1966-2010年日值观测数据,采用修正的Penman-Monteith模型和Thornthwaite方法,计算了各站点潜在蒸散和湿润指数,并分季节、分流域对平均气温、降水量、潜在蒸散和湿润指数进行分析。结果表明:1966-2010年三江源区年平均温度显著上升,90年代年降水量为低值期,2000年以来年降水量有所增加,但仍然低于80年代水平。近45年来三江源区潜在蒸散下降,湿润指数呈现小幅上升趋势,长江源和澜沧江源区均表现出暖湿趋势,而黄河源区表现出暖干趋势。 阅读全文>>

基于EEMD的陕西降水量与太阳黑子活动关系分析
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年4期     作者:唐洁     编辑:新学术编辑部

太阳黑子活动可能对气候的变化起到了诱导和调制作用,文中以陕西省降水量为分析对象研究太阳黑子活动对区域性降水的影响。利用集合经验模态分解方法(EEMD)对1960-2010年陕西省降水量和太阳黑子相对数进行了周期分析。研究结果表明:陕西省降水量存在16.7a、9.8a、4.9a和3.3a的平均周期,主要的平均周期9.8a与同时期的太阳黑子相对数10.3a的平均周期基本一致,在该时间尺度上两者成负相关关系,但降水量有滞后现象。结论说明太阳黑子活动是影响陕西省降水量的重要因子,但陕西省降水量还存在其他周期,说明陕西省降水量除受太阳活动的影响外,还受其他因素的影响。 阅读全文>>

大气能见度及影响因子特征分析
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年4期     作者:郝巨飞,张功文,杨允凌     编辑:新学术编辑部

为研究大气能见度下降与气象要素和环境空气污染物的关系,利用2014年邢台市逐时气象观测资料和同期环境空气监测数据,对气温、露点温度、气压、相对湿度、平均风速、SO2、NO2、CO、O3、PM10、PM2.5和粒子直径介于2.5-10μm的环境空气污染物与大气能见度进行了分析。结果表明:相对湿度和PM2.5质量浓度与大气能见度有很好的负相关,随相对湿度的升高,大气能见度下降和PM2.5质量浓度上升趋势明显。利用PM2.5数据得到了不同相对湿度下的非线性大气能见度拟合方程,在相对湿度≤19%时,PM2.5质量浓度与大气能见度呈对数关系明显;相对湿度介于20-29%时呈指数关系明显;相对湿度≥30%时呈乘幂关系明显。经验证,建立的拟合公式具有较好的实际应用价值。 阅读全文>>

中国"热极"吐鲁番酷热期时间变化特征及成因分析
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年4期     作者:汪天广,刘普幸     编辑:新学术编辑部

基于吐鲁番1961-2014年逐日平均气温资料,计算候平均温度≥30℃酷热期的起止日期及日数,利用线性倾向率、M-K检验、小波分析等方法及WCI、SHI、PVA、PVI、JW、JQ和SS逐月指数等指标,对吐鲁番酷热期时间变化特征及成因进行了分析。结果表明:近54a来,吐鲁番酷热期起始日期略有提前、终止日期推后、日数延长,变化倾向率分别为-0.09p/10a(-0.45d/10a)、0.26p/10a(1.3d/10a)和0.61p/10a(3.05d/10a)。Morlet小波分析表明研究区酷热期起始日期、终止日期和日数存在显著的以2a和6a为主的短周期,其中2a周期与大气环流准2-4a周期的振荡相一致,6a周期与东亚冬季风6.5a周期基本一致,反映了大气环流对其的影响。相关分析结果表明吐鲁番酷热期受西风和北极极涡影响显著,相关系数均通过了α=0.05的置信度,并与周期分析相吻合。 阅读全文>>

中国天山玛纳斯河流域积雪垂直分布及其与温度的关系(英文)
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年4期     作者:郑文龙,都金康,周小兵,宋明明,卞国栋,谢顺平,冯学智     编辑:新学术编辑部

How snow cover changes in response to climate change at different elevations within a mountainous basin is a less investigated question. In this study we focused on the vertical distribution of snow cover and its relation to elevation and temperature within different elevation zones of distinct climatology, taking the mountainous Manasi River Basin of Xinjiang, Northwest China as a case study. Data sources include MODIS 8-day snow product, MODIS land surface temperature(LST) data from 2001 to 2014, and in situ temperature data observed at three hydrological stations from 2001 to 2012. The results show that:(1) the vertical distribution of snow areal extent(SAE) is sensitive to elevation in low(<2100 m) and high altitude(>3200 m) regions and shows four different seasonal patterns, each pattern is well correspondent to the variation of temperature.(2) The correlation between vertical changes of the SAE and temperature is significant in all seasons except for winter.(3) The correlation between annual changes of the SAE and temperature decreases with increasing elevation, the negative correlation is significant in area below 4000 m.(4) The snow cover days(SCDs) and its long-term change show visible differences in different altitude range.(5) The long-term increasing trend of SCDs and decreasing trend of winter temperature have a strong vertical relation with elevation below 3600 m. The decreasing trend of SCDs is attributed to the increasing trend of summer temperature in the area above 3600 m. 阅读全文>>

中国东北洮儿河流域过去50年气候变化与人类活动对径流的影响(英文)
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年4期     作者:张凯,李丽娟,白鹏,李九一,柳玉梅     编辑:新学术编辑部

Taoer River Basin, which is located in the west of Northeast China, is an agropastoral ecotone. In recent years, the hydrological cycle and water resources have changed significantly with the deterioration of the environment. Many water problems such as river blanking, wetland shrinking and salinization have occurred in this region. All of these phenomena were directly caused by changes in stream flow under climate variability and human activities. In light of the situation, the impact of climate variability and human activities on stream flow should be identified immediately to identify the primary driving factors of basin hydrological processes. To achieve this, statistical tests were applied to identify trends in variation and catastrophe points in mean annual stream flow from 1961 to 2011. A runoff sensitive coefficients method and a SIMHYD model were applied to assess the impacts of stream flow variation. The following conclusions were found: 1) The years 1985 and 2000 were confirmed to be catastrophe points in the stream flow series. Thus, the study period could be divided into three periods, from 1961 to 1985(Period I), 1986 to 2000(Period II) and 2001 to 2011(Period III). 2) Mean annual observed stream flow was 31.54 mm in Period I, then increased to 65.60 mm in Period II and decreased to 2.92 mm in Period III. 3) Using runoff sensitive coefficients, the contribution of climate variability was 41.93% and 43.14% of the increase in stream flow during Periods II and III, suggesting that the contribution of human activities to the increase was 58.07% and 56.86%, respectively. 4) Climate variability accounted for 42.57% and 44.30% of the decrease in stream flow, while human activities accounted for 57.43% and 55.70% of the decrease, according to the SIMHYD model. 5) In comparison of these two methods, the primary driving factors of stream flow variation could be considered to be human activities, which contributed about 15% more than climate variability. It is hoped that these conclusions will benefit future regional planning and sustainable development. 阅读全文>>

气候变化下水资源适应性管理的多目标方法应用(英文)
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年3期     作者:洪思,夏军,陈俊旭,万龙,宁理科,石卫     编辑:新学术编辑部

This paper addresses issues on adaptive water management under the impact of climate change.Based on a set of comprehensive indicators of water system,a decision making approach of multi-objects is developed and applied to quantify water adaptive management for the demands of water sustainable use,water environmental protection and eco-water requirement under the climate change.For this study in China,two key indicators are proposed,namely(1) the water resources vulnerability(V) that was represented by integrated sensitivity(S) and resilience(C) of climate change impact on water resources,and(2) the sustainability of socio-economy and water environment,marked by DD,that is integrated scaler of socio-economic development(EG) based on the amount of GDP and the water environment and relative eco-system quality(LI).To find a reasonable solution for adaptive water management,a multi-objective decision making model of adaptive water management is further developed and the multi-objective model was transformed into an integrated single optimization model through developing an integrated measure function,called as VDD=DD/V.This approach has been applied to adaptive water resources planning and management for case study of China with new policy,called as the strict management of water resources based on three red line controls,i.e.,the control of total water use by the total water resources allocation,the control of lower water use efficiency by the water demand management and the control of the total waste water load by water quality management in the Eastern China Monsoon Region that covers major eight big river basins including Yangtze River,Yellow River,Haihe River and Huaihe River.It is shown that the synthetic representation of water resource vulnerability and socio-economic sustainability by the integrated objective function(VDD) and integrated decision making model are workable and practicable.Adaptive management effect of the criterion compliance rate and water use efficiency are more appreciable through new water policy of the three red line controls,which can reduce 21.3% of the water resources vulnerability(V) and increase 18.4% of the sustainability of socioeconomy and water environment(DD) for the unfavorable scenario of climate change in 2030. 阅读全文>>

1910-2014年湖南省均一化气温序列构建及其变化特征(英文)
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年3期     作者:彭嘉栋,廖玉芳,蒋元华,张剑明,段丽洁     编辑:新学术编辑部

Based on the statistical method and the historical evolution of meteorological stations,the temperature time series for each station in Hunan Province during 1910–2014 are tested for their homogeneity and then corrected.The missing data caused by war and other reasons at the 8 meteorological stations which had records before 1950 is filled by interpolation using adjacent observations,and complete temperature time series since the establishment of stations are constructed.After that,according to the representative analysis of each station in different time periods,the temperature series of Hunan Province during 1910–2014 are built and their changes are analyzed.The results indicate that the annual mean temperature has a significant warming trend during 1910–2014 and the seasonal mean temperature has the largest rising amplitude in winter and spring,followed by autumn,but no significant change in summer.Temperature variation over Hunan Province has several significant warm-cold alternations and more frequent than that in whole China.Annual and seasonal mean temperatures except summer and autumn have abrupt warming changes in the recent 100 years.The wavelet analysis suggests that the annual and four seasonal mean temperatures in recent 100 years have experienced two climatic shifts from cold to warm. 阅读全文>>

基于SPEI指数的近53年河南省干旱时空变化特征(英文)
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年3期     作者:史本林,朱新玉,胡云川,杨艳艳     编辑:新学术编辑部

Drought is one of the most complex natural hazards affecting agriculture,water resources,natural ecosystems,and society.The negative societal consequences of drought include severe economic losses,famine,epidemics,and land degradation.However,few studies have analyzed the complexity of drought characteristics,both at multiple time scales and with variations in evapotranspiration.In this study,drought occurrences were quantified using a new drought index,the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index(SPEI),based on observed data of monthly mean temperature and precipitation from 1961 to 2013 in Henan province,central China.Based on the SPEI values of each weather station in the study,the frequency and severity of meteorological droughts were computed,and the monthly,seasonal,and annual drought frequency and intensity over a 53-year period were analyzed.The spatial and temporal evolution,intensity,and the primary causes of drought occurrence in Henan were revealed.The results showed that the SPEI values effectively reflected the spatial and temporal pattern of drought occurrence.As the time scale decreased,the amplitude of the SPEI increased and droughts became more frequent.Since 1961,drought has occurred at the annual,seasonal,and monthly scales,and the occurrence of drought has increased.However,regional distribution has been uneven.The highest drought frequency,35%,was observed in the Zhoukou region,while the lowest value,~26%,was measured in central and western Henan.The most severe droughts occurred in the spring and summer,followed by autumn.Annually,wide-ranging droughts occurred in 1966–1968,1998–2000,and 2011–2013.The drought intensity showed higher values in north and west Henan,and lower values in its east and south.The maximum drought intensity value was recorded in Anyang,and the minimum occurred in Zhumadian,at 22.18% and 16.60%,respectively.The factors with the greatest influence on drought occurrence are increasing temperatures,the Eurasian atmospheric circulation patterns,and the El Ni?o effect. 阅读全文>>

2008-2014年祁连山区夏季降水的日变化特征及其影响因素(英文)
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年3期     作者:刘雪梅,张明军,王圣杰,王杰,赵培培,周盼盼     编辑:新学术编辑部

To investigate the diurnal variation of summer precipitation in the Qilian Mountains in the northeast Tibetan Plateau,the hourly precipitation amount for this region during the summers of 2008–2014 are analyzed using an hourly merged precipitation product at 0.1°×0.1° resolution.The main results are as follows.(1) The spatial distribution and temporal variation of mean hourly precipitation amount and frequency are generally similar and hourly precipitations in the eastern and middle portions are larger and more frequent than that in the western portion.The high value area of precipitation intensity is obviously different from that of precipitation amount and frequency.(2) The spatial distribution of daytime precipitation is generally similar to that of nighttime precipitation,and the daytime precipitation is heavier than the nighttime precipitation.(3) The change rate of precipitation has a maximum at 20:00 Beijing time,and a minimum at 12:00.The hourly precipitation amount significantly correlated with frequency,especially for the middle and eastern portions. 阅读全文>>

塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地与周边地区降水及风沙环境对比分析
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年2期     作者:周成龙,钟昕洁,张仕明,张爱强,吴新萍     编辑:新学术编辑部

利用塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地塔中气象站和周边北缘、南缘、东缘3个气象观测站2000-2014年的气象观测资料,分析沙漠腹地降水和风沙环境特征并与同期周边地区作对比分析。结果表明:沙漠腹地逐年平均降水量为26.0mm,整体年平均降水量比周边偏少了37.3%,夏季降水最多,为全年的69.3%,冬季最少,仅为全年的3.4%,各季节平均降水量均小于周边平均值,月降水比周边偏少51.9%;通过变差系数说明沙漠腹地夏季降水量和水汽压比周边地区更稳定;沙漠腹地主要以NNE、NE、ENE和E四个方向风为主,风向更集中;沙漠腹地平均风速为2.10m/s,比周边各站都偏大,和周边各站的风速分布呈现了较好的一致性;沙漠腹地大风日数和年沙尘暴日数较稳定,轮台地区大风日数年际波动最大,且末年沙尘暴发生日数变化最显著。 阅读全文>>

陕西地区1368-2013年冰雹灾害时空分布特征研究
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年2期     作者:万红莲,宋海龙,朱婵婵,刘东玥     编辑:新学术编辑部

通过对陕西地区1368-2013a间冰雹灾害事件的搜集整理,利用Arc GIS及Matlab等软件统计分析了该地区冰雹灾害的时空分布特征及周期变化规律。结果表明:1368-2013a间,陕西地区共发生了991次冰雹灾害事件,平均每年发生1.54次,其中初等雹灾、中等雹灾和特等雹灾分别占冰雹灾害的25.43%、61.96%和12.61%。冰雹灾害在时间尺度上存在着175a、250a和500a等3个振荡周期。在时间分布上,冰雹灾害发生的频率呈现出波浪式的上升趋势,18世纪以后,冰雹灾害的发生频次明显增加,且夏秋连雹的现象最多。在空间分布上,区域内雹灾存在明显空间的差异,冰雹灾害主要发生在关中平原西部及以北地区,存在以榆林、延安及陇县为中心的高频区域。 阅读全文>>

历史及未来气候变化下中国潜在植被NPP的脆弱性研究(英文)
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年2期     作者:苑全治,吴绍洪,戴尔阜,赵东升,任平,张学儒     编辑:新学术编辑部

Using the Integrated Biosphere Simulator, a dynamic vegetation model, this study initially simulated the net primary productivity(NPP) dynamics of China’s potential vegetation in the past 55 years(1961–2015) and in the future 35 years(2016–2050). Then, taking the NPP of the potential vegetation in average climate conditions during 1986–2005 as the basis for evaluation, this study examined whether the potential vegetation adapts to climate change or not. Meanwhile, the degree of inadaptability was evaluated. Finally, the NPP vulnerability of the potential vegetation was evaluated by synthesizing the frequency and degrees of inadaptability to climate change. In the past 55 years, the NPP of desert ecosystems in the south of the Tianshan Mountains and grassland ecosystems in the north of China and in western Tibetan Plateau was prone to the effect of climate change. The NPP of most forest ecosystems was not prone to the influence of climate change. The low NPP vulnerability to climate change of the evergreen broad-leaved and coniferous forests was observed. Furthermore, the NPP of the desert ecosystems in the north of the Tianshan Mountains and grassland ecosystems in the central and eastern Tibetan Plateau also had low vulnerability to climate change. In the next 35 years, the NPP vulnerability to climate change would reduce the forest–steppe in the Songliao Plain, the deciduous broad-leaved forests in the warm temperate zone, and the alpine steppe in the central and western Tibetan Plateau. The NPP vulnerability would significantly increase of the temperate desert in the Junggar Basin and the alpine desert in the Kunlun Mountains. The NPP vulnerability of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests would also increase. The area of the regions with increased vulnerability would account for 27.5% of China. 阅读全文>>

Meteorological drought features in northern and northwestern parts of Mexico under different climate change scenarios
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Journal of Arid Land》2017年1期     作者:Carlos ESCALANTE-SANDOVAL,Pedro NU?EZ-GARCIA     编辑:新学术编辑部

Meteorological drought has been an inevitable natural disaster throughout Mexican history and the northern and northwestern parts of Mexico(i.e., the studied area), where the mean annual precipitation(MAP) is less than 500 mm, have suffered even more from droughts in the past. The aim of this study was to conduct a meteorological drought analysis of the available MAP data(1950–2013) from 649 meteorological stations selected from the studied area and to predict the drought features under the different IPCC-prescribed climate change scenarios. To determine the long-term drought features, we collected 1×10~4 synthetic samples using the periodic autoregressive moving average(PARMA) model for each rainfall series. The simulations first consider the present prevailing precipitation conditions(i.e., the average from 1950 to 2013) and then the precipitation anomalies under IPCC-prescribed RCP 4.5 scenario and RCP 8.5 scenario. The results indicated that the climate changes under the prescribed scenarios would significantly increase the duration and intensity of droughts. The most severe impacts may occur in the central plateau and in the Baja California Peninsula. Thus, it will be necessary to establish adequate protective measures for the sustainable management of water resources in these regions. 阅读全文>>

Global Water Vapor Content Decreases from 2003 to 2012: An Analysis Based on MODIS Data
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Chinese Geographical Science》2017年1期     作者:MAO Kebiao,CHEN Jingming,LI Zhaoliang,MA Ying,SONG Yang,TAN Xuelan,Yang Kaixian     编辑:新学术编辑部

Water vapor in the earth′s upper atmosphere plays a crucial role in the radiative balance, hydrological process, and climate change. Based on the latest moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer(MODIS) data, this study probes the spatio-temporal variations of global water vapor content in the past decade. It is found that overall the global water vapor content declined from 2003 to 2012(slope b = –0.0149, R = 0.893, P = 0.0005). The decreasing trend over the ocean surface(b = –0.0170, R = 0.908, P = 0.0003) is more explicit than that over terrestrial surface(b = –0.0100, R = 0.782, P = 0.0070), more significant over the Northern Hemisphere(b = –0.0175, R = 0.923, P = 0.0001) than that over the Southern Hemisphere(b = –0.0123, R = 0.826, P = 0.0030). In addition, the analytical results indicate that water vapor content are decreasing obviously between latitude of 36°N and 36°S(b = 0.0224, R = 0.892, P = 0.0005), especially between latitude of 0°N and 36°N(b = 0.0263, R = 0.931, P = 0.0001), while the water vapor concentrations are increasing slightly in the Arctic regions(b = 0.0028, R = 0.612, P = 0.0590). The decreasing and spatial variation of water vapor content regulates the effects of carbon dioxide which is the main reason of the trend in global surface temperatures becoming nearly flat since the late 1990 s. The spatio-temporal variations of water vapor content also affect the growth and spatial distribution of global vegetation which also regulates the global surface temperature change, and the climate change is mainly caused by the earth’s orbit position in the solar and galaxy system. A big data model based on gravitational-magmatic change with the solar or the galactic system is proposed to be built for analyzing how the earth’s orbit position in the solar and galaxy system affects spatio-temporal variations of global water vapor content, vegetation and temperature at large spatio-temporal scale. This comprehensive examination of water vapor changes promises a holistic understanding of the global climate change and potential underlying mechanisms. 阅读全文>>

Stable Isotopes in Precipitation and Atmospheric Moisture of Pailugou Catchment in Northwestern China′s Qilian Mountains
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《Chinese Geographical Science》2017年1期     作者:FENG Fang,FENG Qi,LIU Xiande,WU Jinkui,LIU Wei     编辑:新学术编辑部

Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in precipitation have been widely used as effective traces to investigate hydrological processes such as evaporation and atmospheric moisture source. This study analyzed δD and δ18O of precipitation in continuous event-based samples at three stations of Pailugou Catchment from November 2012 to December 2013. The δ18O and δD values ranged from-32.32‰ to +3.23‰ and from-254.46‰ to +12.11‰, respectively. Results show that the δ18O displayed a distinct seasonal variation, with enriched values occurring in summer and relatively depleted values in winter, respectively. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the δ18O and δD values and local surface air temperature at all the three stations. The nearest Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation(GNIP) station(Zhangye), compared to the Meteoric Water Lines for this study, showed the obvious local evaporation effects with lower intercept and slope. Additionally, d-excess(δD- 8δ18O) parameter in precipitation exhibited an anti-phase seasonal variability with the δ18O. The 96-h back trajectories for each precipitation event using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory(HYSPLIT) model indicated a dominant effect of westerly air masses in summer and the integrated influence of westerly and polar air masses in winter. 阅读全文>>

基于多时相遥感数据的常州市城市热景观变化特征
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《水土保持研究》2017年1期     作者:佟光臣,林杰,陈杭,顾哲衍,唐鹏,张金池     编辑:新学术编辑部

为分析20多年来常州城市热景观时空变化特征,选用4景TM/ETM+影像(1986年、1992年、2000年、2010年)为基本数据源,在RS,GIS技术以及景观分析工具的支持下,分析了常州市区热岛景观格局变化特征。研究结果表明:1986—2010年常州建成区均存在显著的热岛效应。随着城市化进程加快,到2010年城市与郊区的温差达到最大,为35.3K;城市强热岛及其以上等级面积从1986年的8 580.24hm~2增加到2010年的17 725.23hm~2,相应比例从4.58%增加到9.45%,增幅达106.33%;城市热岛等级类型的景观指数分析表明,到2010年高等级的热岛斑块分布范围和强度都明显提高,两环内高等级的热岛片状分布明显。受城市人类活动加剧的影响,各热岛等级斑块的形状逐渐趋于复杂。从景观水平尺度变化来看,2010年热岛景观多样性最丰富,分布最均匀,同时破碎化程度也最高。研究结论可为城市生态建设提供参考。 阅读全文>>

基于遥感的西安市热力景观格局演变
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《水土保持研究》2017年1期     作者:杨丽萍,王乐,孙晓辉,刘晶     编辑:新学术编辑部

基于1992—2013年3期Landsat系列遥感影像,反演出了西安市的地表温度,采用温度归一化分级方法对地表温度进行等级划分,并引入景观生态学中景观格局的研究方法,通过热力景观指数分析,对西安市热力景观格局及其演变特征进行了探讨。结果表明:1992—2013年西安市的热岛效应逐年增强,热力景观格局呈现出较大的时空差异。20多年来,热力景观从以次中温区为优势斑块连片分布的空间格局,转变为以次高温区、中温区等多种热力斑块镶嵌散布的空间格局,热力景观的破碎化程度不断提高,各热力斑块分配的均匀度、景观格局的丰富度和复杂度均稳步增加,人类活动对热环境的扰动持续而稳定。 阅读全文>>

不同插值方法模拟四川省逐月降水量的对比分析
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《水土保持研究》2017年1期     作者:李艳,朱军,胡亚,张恒     编辑:新学术编辑部

我国西部地区气象观测点较少,致使一些地区的降水信息无法直接获取,采用空间插值方法来推测相邻地区的降水量是重要手段之一。针对四川地区观测点少的现状,结合空间分辨率为90m×90m的数字高程数据(DEM),分别采用常规反距离加权插值(IDW)、考虑各点高程的反距离加权插值(IDW)、局部多项式(LPI)、普通克里金(OK)、协同克里金(CK)对每个月降水量和1年平均每月降水量进行插值,并采用交叉检验法来验证插值结果,将平均误差(MAE)和均方根误差(RMS)作为评估插值效果的标准。结果表明:考虑高程的IDW插值误差小于常规IDW,可明显提高插值精度,克里金方法平均误差和均方根误差较小,优于反距离加权和局部多项式插值,在两种克里金方法中,与数字高程模型结合的CK方法的插值效果更好,更加适合四川省山区地形降水量数据的插值。 阅读全文>>

荒漠绿洲过渡带飘尘垂直分布特征及其主要气象影响因素
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《水土保持研究》2017年1期     作者:龚雪伟,何学敏,吕光辉,陈悦     编辑:新学术编辑部

利用激光尘埃粒子计数器,结合气象梯度自动观测系统,于2014年7月植物生长季获取新疆艾比湖湿地国家级自然保护区东大桥管护站附近7个高度(2,3,6,12,15,21,27m)上6个粒径段(0.3μm≤x<0.5μm,0.5μm≤x<1.0μm,1.0μm≤x<3.0μm,3.0μm≤x<5.0μm,5.0μm≤x<10.0μm,10.0μm≤x)飘尘浓度和气象数据,探究了该区域内空气飘尘垂直分布特征与主要气象影响因素。结果表明:研究区飘尘各粒径组分中,0.3μm≤x<3.0μm所占比例最高,累计贡献率高达97.6%。飘尘总浓度(0.3μm≤x)在7个高度上的分异规律为C3m>C6m>C2m>C21m>C27m>C12m>C15m,表现出中间低两头高的"哑铃效应"。气象—飘尘回归方程反演的飘尘数据与实测数据呈现显著正相关(p<0.05),且与实测日变化趋势基本一致。风速对飘尘浓度有极显著(p<0.01)的双重作用,风速小于临界值有利于飘尘积累,反之促进飘尘稀释,且正反效应的临界值随高度的增加而降低;相对湿度的增加极显著(p<0.01)地降低飘尘浓度。 阅读全文>>

沙漠公路防护林影响下近地表风沙流粒度特征的空间分异
所属栏目:气象学     来源:《水土保持研究》2017年1期     作者:俞祥祥,李生宇,马学喜,贾文茹     编辑:新学术编辑部

利用BSNE集沙仪对沙漠公路两侧灌木混交防护林影响下的近地表风沙流粒度特征进行了研究,结果表明:在水平方向上,风沙流粒度沿主风向从林带上风侧到下风侧邻近林带流沙地,平均粒径减小,分选变差,而且越向下风向变化越大,但两条阻沙林带间风沙流粒度受沙丘影响不同于其他点,其平均粒径增大,分选性变好;在垂直方向上,风沙流平均粒径随高度先减小后增大,在植物冠层高度之上略有增大。受防护林影响,风沙流粒度的垂直分异减缓,而不同观测点之间的季节变化增大。防护林影响范围内近地表风沙流粒度的时空变化特征与防护林垂直疏透度、季节以及防护林内具体位置的微环境有关。 阅读全文>>