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新学术导航       首页 > 期刊文献 > 基础科学 > 地球物理学 > 正文

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近40a岱海湖面动态变化研究
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年4期     作者:梁文军,春喜,刘继遥,雪梅,斯琴毕力格,吴智文,宋洁     编辑:新学术编辑部

文中以位于干旱-半干旱过渡区的岱海为研究对象,利用地形图和13期Landsat遥感影像,通过人工目视解译方法提取岱海水域面积和流域耕地面积,探讨其最近40a内时空变化过程及机制。结果表明:从1976年的149.55km~2萎缩到2015年的60.54km~2,缩减幅度达到59.52%。其中1995-2000年湖面萎缩最显著,缩减面积达到18.76km~2,2000-2006年湖面萎缩了5.01km~2,2010-2015年间又缩减了8.85km~2。从湖泊面积变化过程分析发现,其面积变化主要受人类活动以及气候暖干化等因素的共同影响。自1976-2015年间气温升幅明显,降水量和蒸发量呈减少趋势,入湖径流量减少明显。随流域人口迅速增长导致流域工农业总用水量快速增加,对湖泊面积变化形成巨大影响。 阅读全文>>

中国东北洮儿河流域过去50年气候变化与人类活动对径流的影响(英文)
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年4期     作者:张凯,李丽娟,白鹏,李九一,柳玉梅     编辑:新学术编辑部

Taoer River Basin, which is located in the west of Northeast China, is an agropastoral ecotone. In recent years, the hydrological cycle and water resources have changed significantly with the deterioration of the environment. Many water problems such as river blanking, wetland shrinking and salinization have occurred in this region. All of these phenomena were directly caused by changes in stream flow under climate variability and human activities. In light of the situation, the impact of climate variability and human activities on stream flow should be identified immediately to identify the primary driving factors of basin hydrological processes. To achieve this, statistical tests were applied to identify trends in variation and catastrophe points in mean annual stream flow from 1961 to 2011. A runoff sensitive coefficients method and a SIMHYD model were applied to assess the impacts of stream flow variation. The following conclusions were found: 1) The years 1985 and 2000 were confirmed to be catastrophe points in the stream flow series. Thus, the study period could be divided into three periods, from 1961 to 1985(Period I), 1986 to 2000(Period II) and 2001 to 2011(Period III). 2) Mean annual observed stream flow was 31.54 mm in Period I, then increased to 65.60 mm in Period II and decreased to 2.92 mm in Period III. 3) Using runoff sensitive coefficients, the contribution of climate variability was 41.93% and 43.14% of the increase in stream flow during Periods II and III, suggesting that the contribution of human activities to the increase was 58.07% and 56.86%, respectively. 4) Climate variability accounted for 42.57% and 44.30% of the decrease in stream flow, while human activities accounted for 57.43% and 55.70% of the decrease, according to the SIMHYD model. 5) In comparison of these two methods, the primary driving factors of stream flow variation could be considered to be human activities, which contributed about 15% more than climate variability. It is hoped that these conclusions will benefit future regional planning and sustainable development. 阅读全文>>

长江三峡水坝下游河道悬沙恢复和床沙补给机制研究(英文)
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年4期     作者:张为,杨云平,张明进,李义天,朱玲玲,由星莹,王冬,徐俊锋     编辑:新学术编辑部

River basin reservoir construction affects water and sediment transport processes in downstream reaches. The downstream impact of the Three Gorges Projects(TGP) has started to become apparent:(1) reduction in flood duration and discharge, and significant reduction in sediment load. Although there was some restoration in downstream sediment load, the total amount did not exceed the pre-impoundment annual average;(2) in 2003–2014, the d > 0.125 mm(coarse sand) load was restored to some degree, and to a maximum at Jianli Station, which was mainly at the pre-impoundment average. After restoration, erosion and deposition characteristics of the sediment was identical to that before impoundment. The degree of restoration during 2008–2014 was less than during 2003–2007;(3) after TGP impoundment, there was some restoration in d < 0.125 mm(fine sand) sediment load, however, it was lower than the pre-impoundment average;(4) due to riverbed compensation, the d > 0.125 mm sediment load recovered to a certain degree after impoundment, however, the total did not exceed 4400×10~4 t/y. This was mainly limited by flood duration and the average flow rate, and was less affected by upstream main stream, tributaries, or lakes. Restoration of d < 0.125 mm suspended sediment was largely controlled by upstream main stream, tributaries, and lakes, as well as by riverbed compensation. Due to bed armoring, riverbed fine suspended sediment compensation capability was weakened;(5) during 2003–2007 and 2008–2014, Yichang to Zhicheng and upper Jingjiang experienced coarse and fine erosion,lower Jingjiang experienced coarse deposition and fine erosion, Hankou to Datong had coarse deposition and fine erosion, and Chenglingji and Hankou was characterized by coarse deposition and fine sand erosion in 2003–2007, and coarse and fine erosion in 2008–2014. This difference was controlled by flood duration and number at Luoshan Station. 阅读全文>>

基于多源遥感数据的青藏高原中南部地区湖泊系统变化监测(英文)
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《Journal of Geographical Sciences》2017年3期     作者:吴艳红,张鑫,郑红星,李俊生,王智颖     编辑:新学术编辑部

Lakes in the Tibetan Plateau are considered sensitive responders to global warming.Variations in physical features of lake systems such as surface area and water level are very helpful in understanding regional responses to global warming in recent decades.In this study,multi-source remote sensing data were used to retrieve the surface area and water level time series of five inland lakes in the south-central part of the Tibetan Plateau over the past decades.Changes in water level and surface area of the lakes were investigated.The results showed that the water level of three lakes(Puma Yumco,Taro Co,Zhari Namco) increased,with expanding surface area,while the water levels of the other two lakes(Paiku Co,Mapam Yumco) fell,with shrinking area.The water levels of the lakes experienced remarkable changes in 2000–2012 as compared with 1976–1999.Spatially,lakes located at the southern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau showed consistency in water level changes,which was different from lakes in the central Tibetan Plateau. 阅读全文>>

黄河上游天然径流变化特性分析
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《干旱区资源与环境》2017年2期     作者:张营营,胡亚朋,张范平     编辑:新学术编辑部

利用黄河上游唐乃亥水文站1956~2012年57年的径流时间序列资料,采用统计分析法、趋势分析法、Mann-Kendall非参数检验法和小波分析法分析了黄河上游径流年内分布特征、径流年际变化趋势、突变特征及其周期性。结果表明:黄河上游多年平均径流量为627.9m~3/s,径流在年际间表现出较大的差异性,极值比K达到3.1;径流在年内分布不均匀,其中7~9月三个月的径流占全年径流量的46.75%;年径流量总体呈下降趋势,下降率为2.65m~3/s/年;黄河上游年径流量在1992年发生突变,突变前后年平均径流量分别为666.05m~3/s和545.75m~3/s,相差120.3m~3/s;黄河上游径流变化存在着多层次的时间尺度结构,径流演变的第一和第二主周期分别为12年和22年,它们控制了流域径流的演变过程。 阅读全文>>

Spatial and temporal patterns of the inter-annual oscillations of glacier mass over Central Asia inferred from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment(GRACE) data
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《Journal of Arid Land》2017年1期     作者:ZHU Chuandong,LU Yang,SHI Hongling,ZHANG Zizhan     编辑:新学术编辑部

Monitoring glacier mass balance is crucial to managing water resources and also to understanding climate change for the arid and semi-arid regions of Central Asia. This study extracted the inter-annual oscillations of glacier mass over Central Asia from the first ten principal components(S-PCs) of filtered variability via multichannel singular spectral analysis(MSSA), based on gridded data of glacier mass inferred from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment(GRACE) data obtained from July 2002 to March 2015. Two significant cycles of glacier mass balance oscillations were identified. The first cycle with a period of 6.1-year accounted for 54.5% of the total variance and the second with a period of 2.3-year accounted for 4.3%. The 6.1-year oscillation exhibited a stronger variability compared with the 2.3-year oscillation. For the 6.1-year oscillation, the results from lagged cross-correlation function suggested that there were significant correlations between glacier mass balances and precipitation variations with the precipitation variations leading the response of glacier mass balances by 9–16 months. 阅读全文>>

Impacts of Land-use and Land-cover Changes on River Runoff in Yellow River Basin for Period of 1956–2012
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《Chinese Geographical Science》2017年1期     作者:WANG Fang,GE Quansheng,YU Qibiao,WANG Huaxin,XU Xinliang     编辑:新学术编辑部

River runoff is affected by many factors, including long-term effects such as climate change that alter rainfall-runoff relationships, and short-term effects related to human intervention(e.g., dam construction, land-use and land-cover change(LUCC)). Discharge from the Yellow River system has been modified in numerous ways over the past century, not only as a result of increased demands for water from agriculture and industry, but also due to hydrological disturbance from LUCC, climate change and the construction of dams. The combined effect of these disturbances may have led to water shortages. Considering that there has been little change in long-term precipitation, dramatic decreases in water discharge may be attributed mainly to human activities, such as water usage, water transportation and dam construction. LUCC may also affect water availability, but the relative contribution of LUCC to changing discharge is unclear. In this study, the impact of LUCC on natural discharge(not including anthropogenic usage) is quantified using an attribution approach based on satellite land cover and discharge data. A retention parameter is used to relate LUCC to changes in discharge. We find that LUCC is the primary factor, and more dominant than climate change, in driving the reduction in discharge during 1956–2012, especially from the mid-1980 s to the end-1990 s. The ratio of each land class to total basin area changed significantly over the study period. Forestland and cropland increased by about 0.58% and 1.41%, respectively, and unused land decreased by 1.16%. Together, these variations resulted in changes in the retention parameter, and runoff generation showed a significant decrease after the mid-1980 s. Our findings highlight the importance of LUCC to runoff generation at the basin scale, and improve our understanding of the influence of LUCC on basin-scale hydrology. 阅读全文>>

黄河下游近50年径流量变化特征及影响因素
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《水土保持研究》2017年1期     作者:潘彬,韩美,倪娟     编辑:新学术编辑部

应用Mann-Kendall趋势性检验和突变性检验法、双累积曲线法、GM(1,1)模型等方法,对黄河下游1962—2012年径流量和降水量的变化特征及规律进行了深入探讨,以期对黄河下游水资源调配,防洪减灾提供科技支撑。结果表明:降水量减少趋势不显著,突变时间为1964年,径流量减少趋势显著,突变时间为1979年。降水量和径流量变化具有明显的阶段性,降水量以1986年为界,分为丰水期、枯水期两个阶段,径流量以1979年、1985年为界,分为枯—丰—枯3个阶段,黄河目前处于枯水期。采用双累积曲线法定量分析了降水量和人类活动对径流量的影响程度。结果表明:突变时刻前,降水量和径流量同步变化,呈现正相关,突变时刻后,人类活动是影响径流量变化的主要因素,人类活动和降水量对径流量的作用比例分别为68%和32%。利用GM(1,1)模型预测了未来5年降水量和径流量的变化趋势,表明未来5年降水量和径流量将会有所增加。 阅读全文>>

Main Energy Paths and Energy Cascade Processes of the Two Types of Persistent Heavy Rainfall Events over the Yangtze River–Huaihe River Basin
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《Advances in Atmospheric Sciences》2017年2期     作者:Yuanchun ZHANG,Jianhua SUN,Shenming FU     编辑:新学术编辑部

Two types of persistent heavy rainfall events(PHREs) over the Yangtze River–Huaihe River Basin were determined in a recent statistical study: type A, whose precipitation is mainly located to the south of the Yangtze River; and type B, whose precipitation is mainly located to the north of the river. The present study investigated these two PHRE types using a newly derived set of energy equations to show the scale interaction and main energy paths contributing to the persistence of the precipitation. The main results were as follows. The available potential energy(APE) and kinetic energy(KE) associated with both PHRE types generally increased upward in the troposphere, with the energy of the type-A PHREs stronger than that of the type-B PHREs(except for in the middle troposphere). There were two main common and universal energy paths of the two PHRE types:(1) the baroclinic energy conversion from APE to KE was the dominant energy source for the evolution of large-scale background circulations; and(2) the downscaled energy cascade processes of KE and APE were vital for sustaining the eddy flow, which directly caused the PHREs. The significant differences between the two PHRE types mainly appeared in the lower troposphere, where the baroclinic energy conversion associated with the eddy flow in type-A PHREs was from KE to APE, which reduced the intensity of the precipitation-related eddy flow; whereas, the conversion in type-B PHREs was from APE to KE, which enhanced the eddy flow. 阅读全文>>

云南思茅老黄寨铜矿Landsat8 OLI遥感影像的组合分析法蚀变信息提取研究
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《价值工程》2017年3期     作者:朱茂涛,朱杰勇,白光顺,康乐     编辑:新学术编辑部

在认真阅读及目视解译云南省思茅老黄寨铜矿矿区Landsat 8 OLI遥感影像数据的基础上,以USGS波谱库矿物波谱曲线为依据,根据研究区思茅老黄寨的现有地质资料,结合老黄寨铜矿床内的岩石矿物光谱特征,使用最新时像OLI遥感影像数据并采取主成分分析方法(PCA)与比值法相互结合的方法提取遥感蚀变异常信息。 阅读全文>>

车排子地区“亮点”反射特征影响因素及其含油性评价
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《油气地球物理》2017年1期     作者:郝志伟,时秀朋,王有涛,于腾飞     编辑:新学术编辑部

叠后地震剖面"亮点"分析是一项判断某砂岩储集体是否含油的技术,因其影响因素众多,特别是钻井后,实际钻井结果也难以保证其准确程度。以准噶尔盆地西缘车排子地区新近系为例,分析了影响"亮点"地震反射特征的因素,运用有效"亮点"分析技术,评价储层含油性,应用效果较好。 阅读全文>>

迭代Tikhonov向下延拓方法参数影响及应用
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《油气地球物理》2017年1期     作者:沈恒旭,李才明,张祖豪     编辑:新学术编辑部

重磁位场向下延拓是重磁异常处理的一种重要方法。由于向下延拓具有不稳定性,一般只能向下延拓较小的深度。而向下延拓Tikhonov正则化迭代方法则改善了向下延拓的稳定性,提高向下延拓的深度。结合向下延拓Tikhonov正则化迭代方法波数域算子,分别讨论不同正则化因子、不同迭代次数以及不同延拓深度对向下延拓Tikhonov正则化迭代方法波数域算子的形态、幅度、极值点对应波数以及滤波范围的影响。通过对不同深度和不同磁化强度球体正演数据的处理,探讨正则化因子和迭代次数对延拓结果的影响。应用实际资料进行处理,评价其应用效果。 阅读全文>>

用局部相关函数进行数据域波场层析成像
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《油气地球物理》2017年1期     作者:Esteban Díaz,孔军     编辑:新学术编辑部

明确表达了用局部相关法在数据域层析成像的不适合标准。与基于差分的反演相比,基于相关的反演对局部极小值敏感度较低。可是相关值却常常在同相轴之间受到串音的影响,另外,由于是沿整个时间轴求和,所以全局相关值仅仅给出一个模型运动误差的一般概念。作为一种选择,Gaussian时窗局部相关法是能够提取模拟数据和观测数据之间不适合中的局部运动误差值的。与全局相关法相比,局部相关法对地震同相轴的串音敏感度也较低,原因是作为一个时间函数只需进行局部求和。因为低相关串音造成清洁伴随震源,所以产生清洁梯度值。采用与地震资料带宽一致的补偿函数改善梯度值,与用于消除无限带宽资料的线性补偿函数相比,该补偿函数更具有现实意义。 阅读全文>>

部分国内最新期刊中与地球物理有关的题录
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《油气地球物理》2017年1期     作者:     编辑:新学术编辑部

<正>综述·论评 1渤海湾地区断层相关褶皱及其油气地质意义——杨克基,漆家福,余一欣等/石油地球物理勘探,2016,51(3)2储层地震岩石物理建模研究现状与进展——印兴耀,刘欣欣/石油物探,2016,55(3)3深部煤层气储层地质研究进展——李松,汤达祯,许浩等/地学前缘,2016,23(3)4时间域地震全波形反演方法进展——王庆,张建中,黄忠来/地球物理学进展,2015,30(6)5主动源和被动源面波浅勘方法综述 阅读全文>>

部分国外最新期刊中与地球物理有关的题录
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《油气地球物理》2017年1期     作者:     编辑:新学术编辑部

<正>1传感器密度或传感器灵敏度?——Xander Campman,et al.The Leading Edge,2016,35(7)2数字传感器的野外实验——Jason Criss.The Leading Edge,2016,35(7)3通过重力波研究推动地震传感器的创新——Mark Beker,et al.The Leading Edge,2016,35(7)4用于超高分辨率3D地震成像的短拖缆加密阵列 阅读全文>>

车镇凹陷沙四上亚段低坡折带湖相碳酸盐岩地震识别及沉积特征
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《油气地球物理》2017年1期     作者:庞宏磊     编辑:新学术编辑部

为了解决对车镇凹陷沙四上亚段低坡折带湖相碳酸盐岩发育情况认识不统一的问题,从明确低坡折带湖相碳酸盐岩发育条件和相带划分两方面展开研究。依托高、中坡折带已钻井资料和地震资料,运用古地貌恢复、地球物理技术预测、岩性分析等手段,取得了低坡折带湖相碳酸盐岩大规模发育的认识。研究认为,车镇凹陷东部郭局子地区具有一大型宽缓平台,具备湖相碳酸盐岩发育的条件,该处发育一个大型的独立灰滩群落,滩核微相分布范围广,是有利的勘探方向。 阅读全文>>

长江黄金航道整治技术研究构想与展望
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《四川大学学报(工程科学版)》2017年2期     作者:刘怀汉,杨胜发,曹民雄     编辑:新学术编辑部

当前,长江黄金航道面临着长江三峡枢纽和上游水库群联合运行带来的水沙条件新变化,以及防洪、航运、发电、供水、生态等水资源综合利用的新需求,亟待深入认识新水沙条件下航道演变机理及发展趋势,科学评估航道承载力及提升潜力,系统研发水资源综合高效利用目标下的航道整治技术,有效促进航道整治与生态环境保护的协调融合。“长江黄金航道整治技术研究与示范项目冶以提高航道通过能力,实现长江航道资源高效利用为目标,凝练了四大关键科学和技术问题:1)水沙变化条件下长江航道演变机理及发展趋势;2)长江重要生物-生境对航道整治工程的响应机制;3)多因素影响下长江航道滩群联动整治方法与技术;4)基于河流完整性的航道整治生境融入及再造技术。结合关键科学问题和技术内涵,提出五大重点研究内容:1)研究长江不同类型河段复杂动力过程与滩槽演变的相互作用机理,预测长江航道演变趋势;2)研究长江生态航道的架构及评价体系;3)评估多功能河流航道承载力及可提升潜力;4)研究多库联调下山区河流卵石滩群联动航道整治技术、防洪-通航协同下中游强冲刷河段航道整治技术、下游复杂多分汊河段航道滩槽调控技术、径潮流河段深水航道协调治理与减淤技术等;5)研究长江航道整治工程的生境融入及再造技术,构建生态友好型航道整治模式。最后,将五大重点研究内容细分为八大前沿研究方向:1)新水沙条件下长江航道演变机理及趋势预测;2)长江生态航道架构及评价方法体系;3)多目标协同下长江黄金航道承载力及提升潜力;4)多库联调下卵石滩群联动航道整治技术;5)防洪-通航协同下强冲刷河段航道整治技术;6)复杂多分汊河段航道滩槽调控技术;7)径潮流河段深水航道协调治理与减淤技术;8)长江典型生态保护段航道整治技术。基于以上内容,初步构建长江航道整治技术研究体系,以期为提高黄金航道通过能力提供理论基础和技术支撑。 阅读全文>>

不同长度基线的电离层处理策略
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《测绘工程》2017年1期     作者:周颖,满小三,李郴     编辑:新学术编辑部

针对不同长度的基线,受双差之后电离层延迟影响不同,提出一种新的电离层处理策略。对短、中、长基线处理分别采用3种不同的数学模型:电离层固定模型,电离层加权模型,电离层浮点模型。通过3组不同长度基线实测数据处理表明,对应不同长度的基线,文中策略可以有效地提高模糊度固定率及定位精度。 阅读全文>>

研究生素质教育与《计算水力学》课程教学
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《高教学刊》2017年2期     作者:李占松,师冰雪     编辑:新学术编辑部

研究生综合素质的提高是其培养阶段的一项最基本指标。素质教育融于研究生培养的全过程,课程教学是其需要关注的重要环节。在水力学及河流动力学及其相近学科研究生培养计划中,计算水力学是一门专业必修课。它的课程教学是提高研究生综合素质的有效途径。通过学习可以使我们培养出持之以恒的心理,认识世界是有次序的习惯,了解有时问题可以先搁置起来的方法,体会到个人利益要服从集体利益的重要性,理论要符合实际的做事原则,矛盾是可以相互转化的、世界是发展的等辩证思维。 阅读全文>>

珠江口盆地东部地区不同地温梯度下储层特征响应关系
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《中国海上油气》2017年1期     作者:张丽,陈淑慧     编辑:新学术编辑部

珠江口盆地东部地区从北往南,地温梯度整体升高,不同地温梯度范围的储层物性随埋深变化趋势不同,低孔低渗深度下限差异明显。在大量铸体薄片和岩心分析的基础上,结合扫描电镜、X-衍射、压汞测试等资料,开展该地区不同地温梯度下的储层特征响应研究,结果表明:1高地温梯度下压实强度高、速率快、压实减孔效应明显。2高地温梯度下成岩演化快,成岩作用复杂,铁白云石等晚期胶结物类型多,浅埋藏条件下长石等易溶颗粒已不完全溶解并伴随高岭石的沉淀,高岭石伊利石化深度浅。3高地温梯度导致的成岩演化的加速最终使砂岩储层的孔隙结构多为小孔细喉型。4不同地温梯度地区低孔低渗的埋深界线不同,低地温梯度区为4600m,中低地温梯度区为3500~4000m,中高和高地温梯度区分别为3200和2600m。5低地温梯度区中深部储层甜点寻找方向为原始沉积条件优、成分和结构成熟度高的中粗粒以上粒级砂岩,抗压实能力强,可保存较多的原生孔;而超压保护、有效次生孔隙发育和早期烃类充注可成为高温盆地中深层储层甜点的有利条件。 阅读全文>>

基于确定性子波处理的鬼波压制方法
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《中国海上油气》2017年1期     作者:陈宝书,陶杰,李松康,汪小将,仝中飞,张连群     编辑:新学术编辑部

鬼波干扰是海洋地震勘探中始终存在的难题,长期没有得到根本的解决,严重制约了地震勘探技术的进步。目前多数压制方法一般仅针对电缆鬼波,无法很好地压制震源鬼波。本文提出了一种基于确定性子波处理的鬼波压制方法,先获取远场子波,再由远场子波获得3种类型的地震子波,并求取子波之间的匹配算子,然后将算子应用于实际地震数据,最终获得压制鬼波的结果。该方法要求地震采集过程中气枪震源子波相对稳定,通过各种方法获得的子波与实际子波基本接近。理论模型测试结果表明,本文方法能够同时压制电缆鬼波和震源鬼波,即使受地层吸收衰减的影响,依然能够获得较为准确的结果。实际资料应用效果表明,使用本文方法进行鬼波压制处理后,地震资料剖面波组特征清晰,反射同相轴单一,有利于构造解释工作;地震资料频谱频带宽,高低频能量丰富,无明显陷频点,有利于储层反演工作。 阅读全文>>

P波斜入射陡坎地形对地面运动的影响
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《岩土力学》2017年6期     作者:丁海平,于彦彦,郑志法     编辑:新学术编辑部

本文针对陡坎地形,采用数值模拟方法,探讨了陡坎地形在P波斜入射时,入射角度?、坡角?和入射方向变化等参数对地震波传播的影响。结果表明:(1)从陡坎底部到陡坎顶部,放大系数逐渐增大,入射角度、坡角和入射方向没有影响。(2)入射角度?一定时,无论地震波顺着陡坎方向(左)入射还是逆着陡坎方向(右)入射,陡坎上侧的放大系数大于陡坎下侧的放大系数。同时,放大系数随着坡角?的增大而增大。(3)坡角?不变,地震波顺着陡坎方向(左)入射时,x分量的放大系数随着入射角的增大而增大,z分量的放大系数则随着入射角的增大而减小。(4)地震波逆着陡坎方向(右)入射时,放大系数最大值基本在陡坎上侧边缘。地震波顺着陡坎方向(左)入射时,放大系数最大值并没出现在陡坎上侧边缘,坡角越大,偏离越大。(5)地震波顺着陡坎方向(左)入射时,x分量的放大系数比地震波逆着陡坎方向(右)入射时的大,z分量变化不大。 阅读全文>>

利用地震岩性反演技术进行储层预测及效果分析
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《中州煤炭》2017年1期     作者:易院平,张建芝,蔡伟祥,汪勇,王婷,夏先立     编辑:新学术编辑部

砂西N1-N21油藏呈现多而薄的特征,常规地震反演方法进行储层预测比较困难。采用基于模型的反演方法,较常规反演方法能达到较为理想的纵向分辨率,利用测井的高频和低频成分来弥补地震有限带宽的不足。从地质模型出发,用已知的地质信息和测井资料作为约束条件,采用模型优选迭代扰动算法,对测井资料进行内插外推,不断修改地质模型,使合成地震记录与实际地震数据最佳吻合,在理论上反演可以得到与测井资料相当分辨率的反演数据体,从而推算出较高分辨率的地层岩性数据。在反演数据体上精确对比追踪砂层的顶底包络面,制作时间厚度图,根据各井声波时差曲线反算出的层速度,制作该砂层的厚度分布图,取得了可信度较高的储层预测结果。 阅读全文>>

煤矿综采面突水水源瞬变电磁探测技术及应用
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《中州煤炭》2017年1期     作者:邢修举,于景邨     编辑:新学术编辑部

随着煤矿综采机械化程度的提高,在采煤工作面发生突水事故时,准确查明突水水源位置及补给水源方向显得尤为重要。采用矿井瞬变电磁法“扇形扫描”探测技术,在采煤工作面预测突水点靠近的巷道内,距离工作面30~50m,选择巷道环境较好位置进行数据采集,单个测点设计多角度探测,通过对采集的原始数据进行处理形成扇形图件,结合矿井水文地质资料综合分析,从而可确定采煤工作面突水水源位置和补给水源方向。 阅读全文>>

大功率激电中间梯度装置在铅锌矿勘查中的应用
所属栏目:地球物理学     来源:《价值工程》2017年2期     作者:陈国军,徐咪,陈登亮,陈旭乐     编辑:新学术编辑部

激发极化法是寻找矿产资源有效的一种地球物理勘探方法。目前,它广泛地应用于金属矿和水文地质勘察中,并在这些领域中取得了良好的地质效果。大功率激电梯度扫面就是其中一种方法,它可以快速地发现并圈定激电异常。本文通过在某地区铅锌矿勘查中的应用实例,再次说明大功率激电梯度扫面的良好效果。 阅读全文>>